Island Garden City of Samal

Samal Island lies between latitude of 6 degrees 54 minutes to 7 degrees 11 minutes 28 seconds north and longitude 125 degrees and 39 minutes 30 seconds to 125 degrees and 47 minutes 28 seconds East.

It is bounded on all sides by Davao Gulf, on the west by the municipal waters of Davao City, at north by the municipal waters of mainland Davao del Norte Province, on the east by the municipal waters of the provinces of mainland Compostela Valley and Davao Oriental.

The northwest portion of the Island Garden City of Samal is approximately 900 meters away from Davao City, the major economic center of Mindanao Island.

It is located at the Apex of Davao Gulf which is part of the summit of the Sulu-Sulawesi Marine Economic Region which is the richest zone for marine bio-diversity in the whole world.

Total land area is 30,130 hectares inclusive of all component islets, tidal flats and roads which is approximately 3.7% of the total land area of the entire Davao del Norte Province.

It is composed of 46 Barangays. Four (4) of which are unattached to the mainland, being located at Talikud Island in Kaputian District.


  • The Island has extensive mountain ranges, a number of isolated hills and uneven distribution of lowlands.
  • The eastern part of the island is mountainous. Swampy patches and stretches of sandy beaches are found in the areas along the west coast.
  • The tallest mountain ranges of the city can be found in Barangay San Antonio of Babak District with a height of 479 meters above sea level.
  • In Samal District it is in Sitio Tayapoc of Barangay Tagbitan-ag with a height of 532 meters above sea level.
  • In Kaputian District, Barangay Bandera has the highest peak with 400 meters above sea level.
  • The terrain has five (5) major slopes with 71.87% of land belonging to 0- 8% slope which are suitable for urban land uses such as residential, commercial, industrial and institutional.
  • Undulating to rolling terrain (8% - 18% slope) or 11.14% of the land area are suitable for intensive agriculture.
  • Land suitable for specialized agriculture have slopes ranging from 18% to 30% or 8.74% of the land area.
  • Hilly to mountainous terrain ranging from 30% to 50% slope or 6.1% of the land area suitable for specialized agriculture.
  • Lands with mountainous slopes (above 50%) or 2.15 of the land area will require more intensive and oftentimes, expensive management practices and structures.


  • Type IV climate with rain evenly distributed over the year.
  • Average annual rainfall intensity is estimated at 1,673.3mm to1, 941.8 mm while the mean annual temperature is estimated at 28 to 29 degrees Celsius, both are equal to that registered in Davao City (
  • Being strategically hidden at the Apex of Davao Gulf, the Island Garden City of Samal is sheltered from typhoons and tropical depression.

Some demographic characteristics of the city based on the 2010 National Census are:

  • Total household population – 95,874 or 10.14% of the province population.
  • Annual population growth rate (PGR) – 2.21% which is lower than the province PGR of 2.43%.
  • Urban population – 25,200 or 26.28%.
  • Rural population – 70,674 or 73.72%.
  • Population is predominantly labor force; more than half of population is aged 15 and over.
  • There are 107 males for every 100 females.
  • Male and female labor forces are almost equal.
  • Dependency rate – 62 dependents for every 100 working age population.
  • Average household size – 4.2 persons.
  • Literacy rate of 97.81% is higher than that of DAVAO DEL NORTE which is 97.1%.

Population Density

  • City population density is 3 persons per hectare.
  • 5 barangays with a total land area of 3104 hectares or 31.04 sq. km. are classified as urban with an average urban density of 8 persons per hectare.
  • Barangays Miranda and Moncado have bigger density due to bigger population in a smaller land area.
  • The rest of the Barangays are classified as rural with a total gross area of 27,026 hectares and an average rural density of 3 persons per hectare.


  • 39,007 or 40.71% of total population are Cebuanos.
  • Bisaya/Binisaya which comprises of 19.60% of the total population followed and Sama/Samal tribe with 18.41% of the total population respectively.
  • There are more than 100 types of Pilippines ethnic groups such as Boholano, Davaoweno, Tausug, Ilonggo, Waray and foreign nationals also reside in the city.
  • The city population is an assortment of various cultures and ethnic groupings.


  • 72% of the population are Roman Catholics.
  • The rest of the population are members of 85 other denominations of either evangelicals and non-Christian or tribal religions and those without any reported religious affiliation.


  • Most of the “Generals” being families of settlers speak various dialects of their ethnic tribes in the following order: Cebuano, Bisaya/Binisaya, Sama/Samal, Boholano, Davaoweno, Tausug, and Ilonggo/Hiligaynon.

Poverty Incidence

  • The 2015 Municipal and City Level Small Area Poverty Estimates of the Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA) showed that the poverty incidence in Davao del Norte is only 26.1%.

  • It has 51 public elementary schools including pre-schools and 21 public secondary schools (based 2016)
  • In private schools:
    • Nine (9) pre-schools only;
    • One (1) school with pre-school and elementary offerings;
    • Three (3) schools with pre-schools, elementary and secondary offerings;
    • Two (2) schools offering secondary only; and
    • One (1) tertiary school.
    • 1 private and 1 public hospital of type Level I with secondary service capability / capacity.
    • 50 Public Health Facilities composed of:
      •  1 City Health Center
      •  3 Rural Health Units/Lying–in Clinics
      •  46 Barangay Health Stations (40 standard and 6 sub-standard)
    • 59 day care centers in 46 barangays.

  • The city is known for its 3Ms namely: Mango, Mongo and the Mariculture Park.
  • Among the three, mango is considered in One Town One Product Program of the local government and the city will be known for its Fresh Mango and other related products.
  • 90% of the total land area is devoted to coconut, banana (cardava), mango, corn and other crops production.
  • About 71.12 percent is developed for agricultural productions while 18.96 percent remain idle which mean that there is still more space for agricultural production.
  • Among the city’s major crops, coconut is the highest with 16,105.25 hectares planted.
  • The second crop is Banana (Carvada) with 3,201.hectares followed by mango with 2,718.13 hectares.
  • Livestock is one of the livelihoods in the city but generally, the city has no full-scale commercial livestock raiser it is more on backyard activity.
  • The City has an extensive coastline of 118.5 kilometer long and thirty one (31) out of forty six (46) Barangays or sixty seven (37%) percent are coastal.
  • Fishing activities in the coastal barangays produce fish products mostly for local market.
  • There are 4,135 fishermen with 1,335 units motorized bancas and 890 non-motorized bancas.
  • Fishing ground has an estimated area of 99, 247.73 hectares in Davao gulf that utilized the 76.36 percent of the Municipal waters.
  • Fish culture like fish cages in mariculture area and brackish water-fish ponds in the northern part of Samal occupies a minimal production area of 52.5 hectares for fish ponds.
  • In 2014, there are 2,368 existing commercial establishment registered based on Business Permit and Licensing record.
  • The Island Garden City of Samal is considered as one of the most promising tourists destinations in the country forits inimitable beauty and unspoiled natural attraction such as white sand beaches, crystal waters, religious and historical attractions, caves, mountains, forests, view decks and falls the island can offer.
  • In 2014 there are 65 existing Tourism Establishment operating in 3 Districts with a Total Tourists arrival accounted to 422,787 day tour tourists and 256,605 overnight tourists.

Major Road Network

  • Total road network – 410.42 km (barangay roads – 166.24 km; city roads – 219.26 km.; national roads – 24.921 km.)
  • Type of construction:
    • Concrete – 43.715 km.
    • Asphalt – 366.83 km.

Water Supply

  • Water resources of the city is not much abundant in some barangays.
  • Urban areas in Babak and Samal Districts depend their sources of water through submersible pumps and some on deep or shallow wells.
  • Most urban barangays are in the Level III.
  • There are some parts in the Island particularly barangays of Kaputian District acquired water sources from developed springs.
  • The major water supply service providers in the City primarily composed of the local water district known as Island Garden City of Samal Water District (IGaCoS Water District) and the barangay-based Barangay Water System Association (BAWASA) created by the Barangay Government under the management and control of the barangay council.
  • Of the forty six (46) barangays in the entire city, IGaCoS Water District is currently providing Level III water supply services among the twenty-one (21) barangays benefiting the total of 7,165 households served while the twenty-five (25) remaining barangays are being provided with water supply services under BAWASAs.
  • The City’s 22,067 total number of households as of 2014 were able to avail of water supply services through various types of service connections from the water service providers available in each barangay.
  • An estimated total of 16, 602 HHs have availed of water supply services provided by BAWASAs, Water Associations or any private sector utilizing the existing 49 spring sources and 68 deep wells within its jurisdiction.

Power Supply

  • The power source of the city is supplied by two companies namely: Davao del Norte Electric Cooperative (DANECO) and the Davao Light Company.
  • DANECO power source is the Mindoro Grid that can supply an 8- megawatt with 6 generator sets while the marine cable of the Davao Light Company can supply 1 megawatt load for six barangays are supplied by the DANECO.
  • The four barangays of Talicud Island obtained their electric power through the old electric power generator from Babak District manage by the National Power Corporation.

Communication Facilities

  • World Class telecommunication infrastructures are among the best in the country; 59 telecommunication towers are present in the City (6 - Globe, 4 - Smart, 3 - Sun Towers and radio repeater of Radio ni Juan radio network.
  • The various print media circulating in Island Garden City of Samal are IGaCoS Newsletter, Sunstar Davao, Philippine Daily Inquirer, Brigada, Bandera and Mindanao Sun Chronicle mostly distributed in the Poblacion areas.
  • There were 13,200 copies of IGaCoS Newsletter distributed by the local government to all the offices and in the barangays.
  • The other print papers were owned by private companies with only limited copies circulating and mostly are subscribed copies of the government particularly Brigada, Bandera and Mindanao Sun Chronicle and the Philippine Daily Inquirer, a national paper. These papers usually came from Davao City and Tagum City.
  • Despite limitation to access in print media, the local government is connected to internet wherein information can be access through different websites-, Turismo Samal and through Facebook, Instagram, and twitter.
  • Unfortunately, being a small city, no communication service facilities like television network, radio station and cable are available in the island.
  • Being near to a highly urbanized City of Metro Davao, contributed to absence of company who invest in this field of services.
  • The Philippine Postal Office operates in the city.

Solid Waste Management

  • The city government handles the collection and disposal of solid waste generated in the city.
  • Some barangays have their own Materials Recovery Facilities to promote reuse and recycling of solid waste.
  • The Sanitary Landfill is located in Sitio Sampao, Barangay Mambago-A, Samal District, Island Garden City of Samal.

General Air Quality

  • Air quality is still within the national standards inspite of the increase of vehicle use and the number of industries in the city.
  • Full implementation of Ordinance on Anti-Smoking in the city.

General Water Quality

  • Ground water quality is not tested periodically. Monitoring the volume of ground water extraction especially by large industries is not being done.
  • The Local Waterworks and Utilities Administration (LWUA) oversees the development of the IGaCoS Water District including setting of the water quality and service standards.